Statistics lessons and courses near me

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Statistics lessons and courses near me

What is the subject Statistics? 

Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organisation, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model to be studied. 

Populations can be diverse groups of people or objects such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics deals with every aspect of data, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.

When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs and survey samples. Representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can reasonably extend from the sample to the population as a whole. 

An experimental study involves taking measurements of the system under study, manipulating the system, and then taking additional measurements using the same procedure to determine if the manipulation has modified the values of the measurements. In contrast, an observational study does not involve experimental manipulation.

History of Statistics

The early writings on statistical inference date back to Arab mathematicians and cryptographers, during the Islamic Golden Age between the 8th and 13th centuries. Al-Khalil (717–786) wrote the Book of Cryptographic Messages, which contains the first use of permutations and combinations, to list all possible Arabic words with and without vowels. 

In his book, Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages, Al-Kindi gave a detailed description of how to use frequency analysis to decipher encrypted messages. Al-Kindi also made the earliest known use of statistical inference, while he and later Arab cryptographers developed the early statistical methods for decoding encrypted messages. Ibn Adlan (1187–1268) later made an important contribution on the use of sample size in frequency analysis.

What are the three types of Statistics? 

Statistics is mainly divided into the following two categories: Descriptive statistics and Inferential statistics. 

Descriptive Statistics - In the descriptive statistics, the data is described in a summarised way. The summarisation is done from the sample of the population using different parameters like mean or standard deviation. Descriptive statistics are a way of using charts, graphs, and summary measures to organise, represent, and explain a set of data. 

Data is typically arranged and displayed in tables or graphs summarising details such as histograms, pie charts, bars or scatter plots.

Descriptive statistics are just descriptive and thus do not require generalisation beyond the data collected.

Inferential Statistics - In the Inferential Statistics, we try to interpret the meaning of descriptive statistics. After the data has been collected, analysed, and summarised we use Inferential Statistics to describe the meaning of the collected data. 

Inferential Statistics use the probability principle to assess whether trends contained in the research sample can be generalised to the larger population from which the sample originally comes.

Inferential Statistics are intended to test hypotheses and investigate relationships between variables and can be used to make population predictions.

Inferential Statistics are used to draw conclusions and inferences, i.e., to make valid generalisations from samples.

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